|Sutta Name||Nikaya||Vagga||Academic||PTS||PSA Plae||Keywords||Notes|
|Si"ngaalaka | Si"ngaalovaada||Diigha||Paa.tika Vagga||DN.31||D.iii.180ff.||16/077||social relations, vice, bias, duty||Homily on the duties of a householder to the six classes of persons.
The Buddha enumerates the four forms of evil conduct (kammakilesa): 1. killing (paa.naatipaata); 2. stealing (adinnaadaana); 3. adultery (kaamesumicchaacaara), and; 4. telling lies (musaavaada) at D.iii.181.
Also enumerated are the four forms the bias or predjudice (agati): 1. bias caused by desire (chandaagati); 2. bias caused by hatred (dosaagati); 3. bias caused by ignorance (mohaagati), and; 4. bias caused by fear (bhayaagati) at D.iii.182.
Also enumerated are the six Roads to Ruin (apaayamukha): 1. addiction to intoxicants harmful because they cause the loss of wealth, increase of quarrels, liability to disease, damage one's reputation, undermine one's sense of decency, undermine one's intelligence; 2. roaming the streets at unseemly hours harmful because it leaves you vulnerable, it leaves your wife and children vulnerable, it leaves your property vulnerable, it makes you liable to be suspected of crimes, it makes you liable to false rumours, it is the source of subsequent troubles; 3. frequenting shows harmful because you find yourself always obsessed with dancing, singing, choral music, story-telling, cymbal playing and tam-tams; 4. gambling harmful because as a winner you beget hatred, as a loser you regret money lost, you fritter away your wealth, no-one trusts your word, you are scorned by your friends and companions, you are never considered as a marriage prospect; 5. associating with bad company harmful because they are gamblers, womanizers, drunkards, cheats, swindles and aggressors, and; 6. laziness harmful because you become full of excuses such as it being too cold, too hot, too late, too early, too hungry, too full and consequently does no work at D.iii.182-184.
Also enumerated are the four types of false friends (mittapa.tirupaka): 1. a mercenary (a~n~nadatthuhara) who tries to appropriate your possessions, sacrifices little in the hope of gaining much, helps others only when threatened by the same danger, only makes friends to serve his own interest; 2. a man of empty promises (vaciiparama) who tells you how sad he is not to have been able to share with you something that has already run out, promises to share with you things they don't yet have, tries to win your favour with empty promises, has excuses every time called upon to help; 3. a flatterer (anuppiyabhaa.nii) who toadies to your evil-doing, toadies to your doing of good, sings praises to your face, gossips about you behind your back, and; 4. leads you down the road to ruin (apaayasahaaya) by being your loyal drinking companion, being at your side when you roam the streets at unseemly hours, frequents games and shows with you, joins you at the gambling table at D.iii.185.
Also enumerated are the four types of true friends (suhadamitta): 1. a helpful friend (upakaaraka) who protects you even when you are off your guard, helps protect your property even when you neglect it, is your refuge in times of danger, always provides you with twice as much as you asked for; 2. is constant in bad times and good (samaanasukhadukkha) they confide in you, don't go spreading your secrets around, don't abandon you when you fall on hard times, would even die in your place; 3. they give you good counsel (atthakkhaayii) they warn you against unwholesome behaviour, encourage you towards wholesome behaviour, save up new things to tell you, point you in the direction of heaven, and; they empathize with you (anukampaka) don't laugh at your misfortunes, congratulate you on your good fortune, speak out against anyone who maligns you, stands up for those who speak well of you at D.iii.187
Also enumerated are the wise (fourfold) way to subdivide your household budget (bhogavibhaaga): 1. one quarter should be used for his dutiful commitments to himself and others (ekena bhoge bhu~najeyya); 2. & 3. the second two quarter should be re-invested in his business (dviihi kamma.m payojaye), and; 4. the final quarter should be saved in case of times of need (jatuttha~nca nidhaapeyya) at D.iii.188.
Also enumerated are the six directions (disaa) which indicate how a dutiful householder can live up to the relationship he has with different sectors of society: 1. the eastern direction (puratthimadisaa) a child should minister to his parents by reminding himself "I have been supported by them -- I will support them in turn", "I will do their work for them", "I will keep up the honour and traditions of the family", "I will make myself worthy of my heritage", "I will make offerings, dedicating merit to them after their death". Meanwhile his parents should cherish their children by restraining hims from evil, training him in virtue, have him taught the arts and sciences, arranging for his marriage to a suitable wife, handing their heritage to him in due time; 1. the southern direction (dakkhi.nadisaa) a pupil should minister to his teachers by rising to receive them, by waiting upon them, by eagerness to learn, by personal service, by attentively learning the arts and sciences. Meanwhile his teachers should make sure he is well-trained, teach him in a such a way that he understands and remembers well what he has learned, thoroughly instruct him in the lore of every art, introduce him to good friends and companions, provide for his security and safety in every quarter; 3. the western direction (pacchimadisaa) a husband should cherish his wife by honouring her, being courteous to her, being faithful to her, delegating authority to her, providing her with gifts. Meanwhile she should keep the household affairs in order, should be hospitable and helpful to her and her husband's friends and relatives, should be faithful to him, taking good care of the possessions he brings home and by being skilful and industrious in all her duties; 4. the northern direction (puratthimadisaa) a person should cherish his friends by generosity, kind words, helping and acting for their welfare, putting them on equal terms and being sincere to them. Meanwhile the friends should protect him when he is off his guard, help protect his property even when he neglects it, be his refuge in times of danger, not abandon him in times of trouble, show due respect to other members of his family; 5. the nadir (he.t.thimadisaa) a master should cherish his employees and servants by assigning them work according to their strength, by giving them due food and wages, by caring for them in sickness, by sharing delicacies with them and giving them holidays and leave at suitable times. Meanwhile employees and servants should serve their employer by rising before him, going to bed after him, taking only what is given to them, doing their work well and maintaining and defending his good reputation; 6. the zenith (uparimadisaa) a person should serve their spiritual mentors by kindly acts, kindly words, kindly thoughts, by keeping an open house to them and by supplying them with their material needs. Meanwhile spiritual mentors should restrain their supporters from evil, encourage them to do good, minister to them in kindness, teach them new things, clarify things they already know, show them the way to heaven at D.iii.189-192.
Also the enumeration of the Four Bases of Sympathy (sa"ngahavatthu): 1. generosity (daana); 2. kind speech (piyavaacaa); 3. helpfulness (atthacariyaa), and; 4. consistent adherence to one's proper duty (samaanattataa) at D.iii.192.
Last modified on: Sunday, 9 January 2000.